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Does Indonesian come from pidgin and creole?
Does Indonesian come from pidgin and creole?
To find out whether Indonesian is a creole language or not, it is important to know the meaning of the creole itself. According to Herbert Schendl (2001: 60) creole is usually defined as a fluent language that has been adopted as the first language by a speech society and has developed to be more complex for wider functions. While Pijin itself is a supplier language with a reduction in the structure and vocabulary used by speakers who have different languages and are usually used for transactions in trade, shipping, or employee management in general. Pijin language is formed naturally in a social contact that occurs between a number of speakers who each have a mother tongue (Bolinger 1975: 364 in Chaer 2010: 78).
In the process of creolization, simple structures develop in various ways: morphology and syntax become more complex, vocabulary increases, and pronunciation becomes more stable. One example is Tok Pisin, which has been the mother tongue of a number of speakers and at the same time has become the national language and parliament in Papua New Guinea. (Schendl 2001: 61) Usually the language that is derived becomes a creole rooted in the Indo-European family such as France, England, Portugal and the Netherlands. Examples are Tok Pisin (rooted in English) in Papua New Guinea, French Creole in Haiti, English Creole in Hawaii, and others.
Indonesian is the official language of the Republic of Indonesia as stated in the 1945 Indonesian Constitution Article 36 “State Language is Indonesian”. Indonesian is also designated as the language of unity in accordance with the Youth Oath on October 28, 1928. Then, how does Indonesian begin?
At first, the language used as the lingua franca in this archipelago was Malay. However, please note that there are several kinds of Malay Language as expressed by Abdul Chaer (2010: 230-231), namely:
A large number of Malay languages in the core region or origin of the Malay language, namely along the east coast of Sumatra Island, the Malay Peninsula, the southern part of Thailand, and along the coast of Borneo, including North Kalimantan.
Languages that resemble Malay, each of which is a collection of separate dialects such as Minangkabau and Kerinci.
Pijin language, market Malay, which is found in various places throughout the archipelago, which eventually becomes creole-creole, such as in Manado, Ambon, Ternate, Banda, Kupang, Jayapura, Fakfak, Merauke, Larantuka, and Banjar. Including also called Baba Malay which is used by ethnic Chinese descendants.
Other Malay groups such as Jakarta Malay and Loloan Malay in Bali.
Library Language Malay Group, Melayu Tinggi, which was originally centered in Johor and Riau; then moved to Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta.
According to Abdul Chaer, this language library is the forerunner to the Indonesian language. Melayu Library has undergone standardization during the Dutch colonial administration in 1901 and was socialized by publishing Balai Pustaka books and teaching them in schools. This was confirmed by a statement from Ki Hajar Dewantara at the 1939 Indonesian Language Congress in Solo, Central Java, “jang dinamakan ‘Bahasa Indonesia’ jaitoe bahasa Melajoe jang soenggoehpoen pokoknja come from ‘Melajoe Riaoe’, akan tetapi jang soedah ditambah, dioebah ataoe dikoerangi menoeroet keperloean zaman dan alam baharoe,…” which means Indonesian originates from Riau Malay which is a High Malay / Literature. Some of the Malay Language Market, which is more flexible and expressive, is the forerunner of Indonesian language now, because it is used to be used by the kingdom. However, the Malay Language Market was commonly used by the Dutch as mentioned above.
According to S. Romaine (2006: 600) “European colonization during the 17th to 19th century created a classic scenario for the emergence of a new language called pidgins and creoles out of trade between the native inhabitants and European”. The statement shows that European colonization in other countries began in the 17th century and it also included Indonesia colonized by the Dutch. This colonization creates a new language that is emergency in nature, called massage and creole. In other words, the language of oil and creole that existed in Indonesia began at that time and had nothing to do with pre-existing Malay languages, namely Malay which was used in the era of the kingdom in the archipelago since the 7th century as evidenced by the discovery of inscriptions that using Old Malay language. One of the creole languages in Indonesia is the Portuguese Monument Creole in Tugu Village.
It can be concluded that Indonesian is not derived from oil or creole, because it comes from High Malay which is commonly used by the kingdom in the archipelago rather than Low Malay. High Malay is thought to be a derivative of Old Malay which is also often used in the kingdom which can be proved by the discovery of inscriptions. This was also evidenced by the statement of Ki Hajar Dewantara at the 1939 Indonesian Language Congress in Solo, Central Java, that Indonesian came from Malay, more precisely Riau Malay which was Malay High.
Chaer, Abdul. 2010. Sosiolinguistik: Perkenalan Awal. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta
Hutagalung, Batara R. 2006. Asal Usul Kata Indonesia
Romaine, S. 2006. Pidgins and Creoles: Overview. Oxford: Elsevier
Schendl, Herbert. 2001. Historical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Pres
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